Combination of Stromal Proteins with Algin/ Calcium or TG
I include this in a separate heading, due to the low-cost stromal proteins of collagen, elastin, and reticulin and muscles with a high percentage of it. The protein is of huge interest in TG formulations. How will the inclusion of pork gelatin aid the binding system with TG?
In considering connective tissues, it is astounding to recognise the monumental presence of K. B. Lehmann. In terms of the curing reaction in meat, it was this German hygienist and bacteriologist from the Hygienic Institute at Würzburg, Germany who confirmed Polenski’s suspicions (Saltpeter) that nitrite is the key in the cured colour formation and not nitrate as was believed. He further importantly identified its colour spectrum when diluted in alcohol. (Fathers of Meat Curing) It was probably based on his work and that of his student, Karl Kißkalt, that the German government allowed the use of nitrite in curing brines during the first world war.
It was Lehmann and his coworkers who showed that “the toughness of different cuts of meat, measured mechanically, was closely related to their content of connective tissue, and that the decrease in toughness resulting from cooking was related to the collagen of connective tissue rather than to the elastin.” (Mitchell, et al.; 1926)
They found that “under the influence of moist heat the collagen is readily changed to gelatin, thus losing its toughness. In the raw condition, white fibrous connective tissue (mainly collagen) is almost twice as tough as yellow elastic connective tissue (mainly elastin), but when cooked, the former loses most of its toughness while the latter remains practically unchanged in this respect.” (Mitchell, et al.; 1926)
“Ensor, Sofos, and Schmidt (1990) concluded that the use of high-connective-tissue meat or addition of concentrated forms of connective tissue in algin/calcium gel restructured meats could improve product texture and reduce formulation costs.” (Sun, 2009) Gelatin is the ideal thickening agent to accompany transglutaminase since it contains a variety of different amino acids, including our old friends Glutamine and Lysine which are now cross-linked by the action of transglutaminase. (Aguilar, M. R. and Román, J. S.; 2014: 186) It is important to use the right kind of gelatin. Fish and pork gelatin will be objectionable for either religious or allergen concerns by various processors in various parts of the world and it is an important consideration.
I am aware of tests underway in Chili where pork protein is tested in conjunction with TG to replace MDM. The viability of this must be tested.
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